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I actually like what you have got right here, certainly like what you are saying and the way in which you assert it. Penang and Province Wellesley. From that date till the 1st June, I was occupied in studying the reports published from and in making excursions to different reserves and parts of the island. On each occasion 1 was accompanied by Mr. Ridley, M. Carter, the Collector of Land Revenue 1 , went out with us on two days.
From the 2nd to the 14th June I visited Malacca and with Mr. Ridley spent 6 days in going round to the different reserves. Under the guidance of Mr. Curtis, Assistant Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens 4 da ys were given up to visiting the reserves and parts of the island. From the 22nd to the 25th the reserves ot Pro- vince Wellesley were inspected and on the 26th Mr. Ridley left us at Bukit Mertajam on the 24th to return to Singapore.
Five days were passed in the Dindings and on the 2nd July I reached the Perak road and took up the work in that State, having been met the day before by Mr. Douglas, the Acting Forest Officer of Perak. I desire to acknowledge, with many thanks, the cordial welcome and ready assist- ance in my work which has been afforded to me by the Officer Administering the Government, Sir J. Curiis for much of my information. General Remarks. The Colony known as the Straits Settlements consists of the three different Set- tlements, Singapore, Malacca and Penang, and the last named comprises the separate territories of Province Wellesley and the Dindings.
While Singapore and Penang are Islands, Malacca and the other tracts are rectangular strips lying on the coast of the main peninsula. Province Wellesley is almost entirely, with the exception of the forest reserves, taken up for the cultivation of coco-nuts, paddy, sugar, tapioca or fruit and more recently of Para Rubber. Even the hills have been brought under the cul- tivation of nutmegs, areca-nuts and cloves.
The island of Penang is similarly highly cultivated, but being more hilly, it has a much larger percentage of forest reserves, and a larger proportion ot land under spices and fruit trees. The Dindings on the other hand is almost entirely under forest, cultivation being limited to scattered villages or hamlets.
Malacca is highly cultivated in part and its forests, outside reserves, are being rapidly cleared for the shifting cultivation of tapioca. In Singapore coco-nuts, pine-apples, indigo, pepper, gambier and garden produce are grown. It is believed, however, that a serious fall in prices is alone accountable for the abandonment of the cultivation of these crops. This however is not really the case. But, on the other hand, if the newly abandoned area is burnt over by regularly recurring fires, the young tree growth is killed out, the soil rapidly deteriorates under continuous exposure and the grass known as lalang Imperata cylindrica takes possession.
Once this happens constant fires prevent any improvement in the con- dition and the area becomes permanently covered with grass. Another bad effect of temporary cultivation is the destruction of the more valuable hard wood forest, and its replacement by a young growth of soft woods. This would be disastrous if a fair proportion of the virgin forest were not set aside as forest reserves, as has been done in Malacca. Past History of Forest Conservancy. Considerable attention had been paid to the conservation of forest lands in the' Straits Settlements prior to , when the late Mr.
Cantley, Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens, Singapore, was instructed to report on the forests and make recom- mendations for their better management. His report, published in , sufficiently describes the progress made up to that time in protecting the forest lands at the disposal of the Crown, and it is scarcely necessary for the purposes of this paper to make further reference to the measures which had previously been taken to secure the maintenance of forest areas.
The recommendations made in are summarised in paragraph of the re- port, and shortly afterwards effect was given to them by the creation of a Department and the grant of money to carry them out. The Director of the Botanic Gardens, Singapore, was in charge of the Depart- ment and he had the services of the Assistant Superintendent at Penang and of a second Assistant at Malacca. The establishment was entirely protective and consisted of Forest Guards, the seniors of whom in Singapore were styled Lance-Corporals or Corporals.
From the felling of forests and the clearing of forest lands were prevented by the demarcation of reserves in Singapore, Penang and Province Wellesley, and in Singapore the planting up of certain areas, chiefly with exotic trees, was undertaken. In many plants of the Borneo iron wood — Lilian -Eusideroxylon Sc Ima- ger i — were introduced. From the rst January, , in accordance with the recommendations of a Re- trenchment Committee the forests and their protective establishments were transferred from the charge of the Officers of the Botanic Gardens to that of the Collectors of Land Revenue.
The work done and progress made during the years is briefly referred to in the reports made by the Gardens Authorities in the year Forest reserves had been selected and demarcated as follows : — Singapore Penang and Pulau Jerejak There was no doubt, as is claimed, much perseverance in re-afforesting, more particularly in Singapore : but the results in this direction have not been commensurate with the expenditure.
Many thousands of plants were put out, but either the areas planted were not secure from fire or the plantations were not I r I 3 sufficiently weedeo and tended for the plants to grow up and establish themselves. Moreover from the number of exotic species selected the plantations were mostly of an experimental nature.
In Penang no attempt was made to artificially re-stock forest areas on a large scale. CURTIS writes that no planting wad done, partly on account of the ex- pense, but mainly becaus- Vre was reason to bei'eve that efficient protection during a sufficiently long period all that was require o re-stock the lorest. From up to the resent, existing rese ,s have been protected and some further reservations have been made, chiefly in the findings and Province Wellesley.
No planting has been done and the reserves have been gradually closed entirely to the extraction of all timber and forest produce of all kinds. The Collectors of Land Revenue are responsible for the upkeep of the boundaries, protection and closure. Present Policy. There can be no two opinions as to the soundness of the policy which has secured to the Colony 88, acres of forest reserves, to be maintained permanently under forest growth.
The reserves are distributed over the different Settlements as follows : — Settlement. IO,I 22 t Province Wellesley Certain additions will no doubt be made to the reserves in both Pe- nang and Singapore: and the area of reserves in the Dindings will eventually stand at a much higher figure than at present, when surveys are made and the areas come to be accurately computed.
The progress made in selecting, suitably demarcating and protecting these reserves from encroachment and theft is highly satisfactory and creditable to the Government as well as to the Department which carried out most of the reservations, and to the Collectors of Land Revenue who have supervised their protection since Protection from fire has not been effective in some places and more attention should have been given to this important matter in Singapore, where experimental plantations, made at considerable cost, have been constantly burnt over and destroyed.
I he improvement of the reserves by means of planting the more valuable indige- nous trees h of Mr. The introduction of the more valuable hard woods into a mixed forest by planting is not easy; and, indeed, may be said to be impossible un- less the complete removal of the existing crop over more or less considerable areas be first undertaken, so as to admit of a complete young growth only springing up with the trees planted. These considerations lead in most in- stances to the systematic planting up of compact areas, after the clearing off of whatever may be the existing growth.
Exceptionally, as with teak planted by the Karens in Burma, means may be found to artificially increase the proportion of trees of a valuable species in a forest by dealing with isolated patches, but this is not the case as a rule and it may be accepted that, when costly planting is required, it should be arranged with the definite object of creating a new crop over a considerable and previously fixed upon area.
Attached to bound copies of Report only. I 4 blocks by means of lines or roads or paths, that will serve to facilitate inspection, pro- tection, and the export of produce. The utilisation of timber and forest produce from the reserves is at present in abeyance, but whenever demands have been met from the reserves the timber and produce have been disposed of as from the unreserved Crown Lands.
Under the Crown Lands Ordinance No. Hitherto the reserves have '. This enture to suggest is a mistake. All Crown Lands whether reserved or unreserved should in my opinion be treated as one and the same estate and be reported upon as such, different rules, rates, etc. The unalienated Crown Lands o f each District , inasmuch as they all yield timber and forest produce should , I submit , be considered , and treated as forests , whether reserved or unreserved. This revenue would go far to cover the cost of protection of the reserves and it seems to be right for one account to contain both the revenue from one part of Crown Lands and the expenditure on the other part.
It is the Crown Lands as a whole that should be considered in balancing the account. In the event of a forest law being enacted all Crown Lands, and not reserves only, should come under it. A special Forest L aw should in my opinion be enacted. The reasons which have induced all countries with large forest estates to adopt a special law for their forests need not be enumerated here.
I may merely state that although the legal title of the Crown Lands which are taken up as reserves may be perfectly clear, and no rights of user may exist over them, still it would be an advantage if a definite procedure were laid down and if power were given to a Settlement Officer to deal with alienated lands enclosed in the proposed reserves and to record rights of way and to watercourses.
In some cases it may be equitable to create a right to the fruit of certain trees to which persons may lav claim. Then the acts prohibited within a reserved forest and the penalties for offences should be clearly laid down. Power should also be taken to regulate and control fires both inside a reserve and in its vicinity. In unreserved Crown Lands the power to make certain species of trees reserved and to take more special measures lor their protection would be useful in the Findings and possibly the reservation of certain trees would be a good measure in Malacca, with a view to their being spared in the clearings for tapioca.
The general power held under Ordinance No. Even now I venture to think that it is open to doubt whether under Rules made under that Ordinance the double charges made in the Dindings, the one for licences to cut timber and the other as royalty on timber extracted are strictly legal. It is desirable also to have power to establish revenue stations, to which timber and produce shall be brought for the realization of Government dues, and to control timber and produce in transit until such time as the Government dues shall have been collected, and to provide for its release from control by marks or passes to show that its removal is authorised.
This would simplify the collection of Government dues in the Dindings. Such an area is that in Penang to the North of the Government Hill Reserve and below an elevation of 1. Small area; e also available in? Bukit Langkap in the central District of Provinc. Vellesley may well be reserved. In Singapore the mangrove tracts on the North oi the island should be reserved so that a working scheme may be drawn up for the entire area of this class of forest.
An additional reserve can probably be demarcated on the Bajau Hills near the 1 uas River and it is for consideration whether Pulau Ubin should not be in great part reserved. A reserve may be formed on Bukit Undan opposite Lumut and Bukit Senaogir may be maintained permanently under forest but there is no urgency in regard to their demarcation.
A survey of the exist- ing reserves, and indeed of the whole territory, is much needed ; and, when this is made, I am satisfied that the reserved area will be found to greatly exceed the esti- mates of it. The unreserved mangrove tracts may well be reserved, since as a rule they can only be utilized for the production of fuel, and with the Tanjong Burong reserve be worked under a systematic plan such as will be described under another heading.
The cutting of these could then be either entirely prohibited for a time or it could be restricted by placing a minimum limit on the size of trees to be felled and by charging higher rates. The reserves should be sub-divided by cleared lines or inspection paths into blocks of a manageable size, sa y of goo- 1 , acres each. Phis would facilitate the clearing and patrolling of the boundary fines : but it would chiefly be advantageous in permitting a more minute inspection and examin- ation of the reserves than is at present possible.
It is a hopeless task to search for gutta percha trees in, or gain any idea of the composition of, the large reserves in Malacca as they stand, whereas, if they could be dealt with block by block of reasona- ble size, it would be a simple matter. The fines or paths will usefully serve later on for the export of produce. The protection of certain reserves from fire should be undertaken.
Wherever the reserves have been so demarcated as to enclose blanks over- grown only with ferns and lalang grass, or similar blanks within the reserves are traversed by roads, fires constantly occur and the blanks are not only made permanent but are enlarged by the encroachment of the lires on the forest growth. This state of things is chiefly confined to Singapore and Province Wellesley: and I think the reserves could be easily protected by means of fire-lines such as are extensively used in India.
Where there is risk of fire a narrow fine 5' or 6' parallel to the boundary or two fines parallel to the road one on either side should be cut and cleared at a distance of 50' or even ioo', and the intervening grass be burnt under control once or twice a year as may be necessary. The grass cut from the narrow fines should be thrown to dry on the side to be burnt and to facilitate the burning and control of the fire, cross- lines may be cut across the fire-lines.
Once the system were started, it would be easy to carry out and Forest Rangers could arrange to overlook and pay for the work. Where Gutta Percka trees Palaquium sp. But, on the other hand, it is claimed that the wild jungle tribes living there, having known and cut out every mature tree long ago, must know if it were to be found elsewhere than at that place in the Bukit Sunggeh reserve where they have pointed out 18 trees.
Near Batang Malacca there is a wood with 26 trees and saplings, the largest being 30 feet in height with a girth of C3". Near Nyalas 65 trees and plants have been counted. At Tebong there are said to be on an area of 19 acres the largest being about 1 '6" in girth.
In the Batu Feringhi valley of Penang the trees and saplings are much more numerous and some of the trees are larger. The largest trees known in the Colony are one or two situated on the Northern boundary line of the Dindings and those in a valley adjacent to the Botanic Gardens at Penang.
These latter are 20 or more in number and 2 or 3 seeded last year. One measures f 6 " in girth. From these trees Mr. It would seem that the old parenf trees which have produced the young trees and saplings now found were entirely cut out between and when Gutta Percha was in great demand and that so clean a sweep of them was made that not a tree remains.
The oldest of those at Penang are beginning to bear seed, and the object in view must be to foster all the natural growth that exists in order to lead a good number of trees on to maturity and seed-bearing. It will be. I would propose that every locality where the trees grow or can be found in any appreciable numbers should be carefully gone over.
The areas are unfortunately all too small to make it a heavy piece of work. Each tree should be weeded by the felling, or killing by girdling, of trees over- topping it, interfering with its crown development or tending to suppress it.
At the same time care must be taken not to make great openings in the canopy and thus ex- pose the trees too suddenly to an excess of light. Any healthy poles of 3" — 6 " in diameter should also have their crown freed and uncovered so as to admit of their development. Seedlings and suppressed stems, often 3 or 4 feet high, and quite thin, with a tuft or two of leaves may be removed to nurseries and gradually hardened off for transplanting in the regular plantations, which it is proposed should be made.
Hitherto the work of planting up certain areas has not been carried out on any systematic plan. At the beginning various trees mostly exotics were tried in Singa- pore but owing to fires or other causes little or no trace of them is now found. In and some Para Rubber was planted, with which several acres are now found to be stocked in the Sembawang Reserve, and in the Ayer Kroh reserve in Malacca.
The boundary lines and a protective fire belt were planted with Eugenia grand is which has grown well. Numerous plants of Dialium sp. Later in some thousands of Eusideroxvlon Schwageri were raised and planted out, but these hx succeeded owing 'ssibly to want of funds to tend the plantation, and to tl ge which was n.
Some small areas hav. At Ayer Kroh Gutta Percha plants have been planted out. In my opinion it would be well to discontinue the experimental planting of all sorts of indigenous and exotic trees and concentrate efforts on the formation of one or two large planta- tions of the most valuable indigenous tree.
From its scarcity in the Colony, the narrow limits of its habitat and the value to the world of its product there is no more valu- able tree than the Gutta Percha. The scarcity of any of the better hard woods or of woods suitable for construction need cause much less concern than that of Gutta Percha for the reasons, first, that the reserves still contain useful woods and, second that sea-borne timber will always be forthcoming to meet the requirements of the Settlements.
Operations have been begun at Ayer Kroh where land is available for the purpose and where supervision wall be easy. The soil is perhaps not that which would be selected for choice, as it is chiefly formed by laterite and the Gutta Percha is found growing naturally on the granitic soils, often amongst boulders of the same rock with but little soil.
Still I believe it will grow at Ayer Kroh provided its exigencies as a shade-loving plant are recognised and it is protected by a shelter wood of old trees or by nurses, where it is planted in younger forest [blukar. Though shade-loving and consequently very delicate when young, its rate of develop- ment will depend on its gradual exposure to direct sunlight by opening out space over-head for its crown.
A second plantation should I think he started in Penang, where all the valleys and such land as can be obtained not above 1, feet may be planted with certainty of success from the Botanic Gardens round the Northern side of the island as far as Muka Head. It need hardly be said that no planting should be done where the tree occurs naturally.
It would be well to undertake at each place the planting of at least a hundred acres a year, but unfortunately the difficulty in procuring seed and plants imposes a limit. Curtis made an excellent beginning last year in securing nearly i,coo plants, and it may be hoped that these trees will continue to bear seed, and that others may come into bearing.
It may be anticipated too that the Perak Officers will find means to collect and supply seeds or seedlings in numbers. In any case it is essential that plants should be economised and made to go as far as possible : and those at Ayer Kroh have been rightly put out at 20 feet apart which gives to the acre. The Tembusu has been experimented with and is sure to succeed.
Yield and working. All mangrove tracts should be worked on a systematic plan of annual fellings fixed by area. The swamps can with difficulty be turned to any other purpose. The trees re-produce themselves from seed and the young forest is understood to grow up to a suitable and exploitable size in about 15 years. The areas have only to be mapped, divided into suitable blocks — each of which would provide a complete series of fellings — and each block marked off on the ground into 15, or better still 20 felling?
Lat h coupe can be sold by auction or otherwise. The clear felling of the rest of the crop will give the necessary light for the development of the seedlings and as soon as a dense crop is established, after probably some 5 years the s jed bearers can be remov- ed. This treatment has not within knowledge been a, d, but I feel confident of the success of it from what I have ery where observed o r.
The closing of the reserves to the extraction of timber is in a general way quite the proper policy, so far as 1 am competent to judge. In Singapore but few of the reserves contain mature timber and then it is only in limited parts that it is found. The greater part is more or less young or only half-grown.
The large reserves of Malacca, rich in good mature timber, lie side by side with extensive areas covered with similar forest which is being cleared and burnt and so the time has not yet come for the timber to be valuable. The more accessible Sungei Udang Reserve had all the mature timber worked out of it before it was reserved and it is mostly young and very promising.
In the Bindings the unreserved lands yield more than there is a demand for. The only mature forests in Province Wellesley are those which cover the tops of the hills. Private holdings within the catchment area should be acquired. Such reserves as Pantai Acheh and Laksamana would yield some timber but it is hardly necessary to make an exception in their case. In the remainder of the Settlements a few hundred dollars a year will represent the value of timber sold from Crown Lands. The different trees are divided into 2 or 3 classes according to their values.
In the Bindings, however, a different system is in force. It is rather remarkable that the royalty so collected is approximately the same as the sum received from the tax on wood-cutters and sawyers. I have some doubt whether the tax on wood-cutters is provided for in the Crown Lands Act and Rules, and it is at best an awkward way of realising the value of the trees. Still it must be admitted that it has the advantage of being understood by the people.
The Government dues on Charcoal may continue to be realised as at present by a monthly charge of Si per man employed on its manufacture, with the proviso on the licence that no tree of the reserved kinds is felled. The charge for a licence under the rates fixed in the Timber Roll, which vary for every six inches of diameter, has the inconvenience that a person taking out a licence must find it difficult to state correctly the sizes of the trees he is proposing to cut.
The system in Upper Burma is to issue licences to fell trees, those for reserved and unreserved trees being in different form and colour, on payment of a fee for each tree and on condition that in addition to the fee paid for the licence, royalty at certain rates shall be paid on arrival of the timber at a certain place and that the timber shall not be converted or utilized or removed from that place until the royalty has been paid in full.
The fees for licences vary from 4 to 15 cents for unreserved trees and are 32 cents per tree for reserved trees. On timber of the unreserved kinds in Upper Burma they are ; For soecial Other timl woods. Logs -D ft. Poles below l'o v in girth For unreserved woods a similar scale to that above might suffice. Should the wood-cutter's tax be continued in the Dindings half the rates of royalty taken elsewhere might be prescribed for that territory.
All minor forest produce should be utilized , as far as there is a demand for it , whether found in the reserves or on the unreserved Crown Lands. Their collection, as well as that of honey and wax, etc. A certain number of Rangers trained in forest work should be employed, and l further suggest the appointment of a trained Forest Officer with ex- perience to inspect and advise as to the carrying out of any works and on all matters connected with the administration of the forests.
The Department, as organized prior to , did much good work in connec- tion with the selection and demarcation of the reserves: but once this work was accomplished and the protection of the demarcated areas was the chief business 1 am of opinion that the Government acted wisely in handing over to the Collectors of Land Revenue and District Officers the charge of the torest reserves.
The districts are all small, compared with what is known as a District in India, for there are ten Officers for 1, square miles. There may be the tempta- tion to disafforest areas for which cultivators or planters are applying, but it may be assumed that the Government, which has determined on the reservation ol a tract of land with the conviction that it ought to be maintained under forest, is sufficiently alive to the necessity for a continuous policy, and aware that such policy where tim- ber trees are concerned must, to be of any use, extend over a century or more.
In India the District Officer is responsible for the forests of his District, and the arrangement works well. I believe it is the only possible starting point for any rea- sonably economical system of forest conservancy in the Straits Settlements. A De- partment which consists of one, two or three highly paid scientific Officials and 20 or 30 Forests Guards or patrols cannot be effective and its development on practical lines would be too expensive to be justifiable.
District Officers have their Land Office subordinates [Forest Rangers they have been rather inappropriately termed by the Crown Lands Act to overlook the protective establishment employed for the reserves and assist in the supervision of their work of boundary clearing and of pre- vention of theft or encroachment. The same officers of themselves or through local headmen Penghulus protect, and control the exploitation from unreserved Crown Lands.
But wherever the forest reserves have to be more than protected ; where works of improvement are called for or ystematic exploitation F squired, then the District Officer requires the assistance of men with a spe' knowledge of forest work.
A trained European expert wh aid relieve him of i of his responsibility, such as is employed in Districts in L is out of the quest Four such Officials would be required for the Colony. Such men can only be obtained from the Dehra Dun Forest School.
They may be either Straits men, who, under such inducements as Government may think fit to offer, go to Dehra and obtain certificates or they may be private students who have obtained certificates and accept appointments.
These latter would be either of European parentage born in India, Eurasians or English speaking natives. The Burma Government offers such men appointments on Rs. If the proposals made in this report are acted upon, there will be employment for four or five Rangers certificated to be qualified for forest work.
To arrange for the working of the mangrove tractsand weed gutta percha trees in reserves. To carry out the Palaquium sp. One stationed at Lumut, the other at Bruas, to look after ail forest work, leaving the Land Revenue Ranger to attend only to alienated lands or the alienation of forest lands.
For the present one man vice the Forest Inspector would suffice, but in that case he should be at Bruas and do both the forest and land revenue work in the North leaving the Land Revenue Ranger to do both forest and land work from Lumut. It is, I think, a waste of energy to have two men, a Ranger land revenue , and an Inspector forest , dividing the work over the whole ter- ritory. It would be better to have one man in the North and the other in the South each doing both the land revenue and forest work of his division.
To plant gutta percha and weed and tend the naturally growing trees. Curtis can probably manage without this man for the present. Curtis, Assistant Superintendent, Botanic Gardens, Penang, may well con- tinue to be employed to superintend the Paiixquium plantations both at Malacca and Penan o-. He has already commenced the work in Malacca, takes a keen interest in it, andls well qualified to carry it out successfully.
For this purpose he must visit Malacca and give considerable time in Penang to raising plants and laying out suit- able areas for" plantation. Curtis merely inspecting, advising and helping in any way in his power. But, if forest conservancy is to be properly carried out on a determined and last- ing policy and it is only in this way that any real progress may be looked for — I am strongly of opinion that the Government must have the benefit of professional advice on the spot, and the works must be under professional inspection and direction.
I propose therefore that a Forest Officer, trained in Europe and with 8 or 10 years experience in Burma, should be appointed and his services divided between the Colony and the Federated Stales. There are some Officers in the Colony who would not unnaturally prefer to have one or more of their own men. This, however, after careful consideration on my part does not seem to be feasible for two reasons. Secondly, if a suitable officer were trained, there would always be the impossibility of replacing him when on leave by a thoroughly trained and experienced locum teneks.
It must be clearly understood that nothing will be gained by creating the appointment and tilling it by any but a professionally educated Foresterol some age and standing. His Head Quarters might be at Kuala Lumpur or Singapore, but he would be required to devote a cc "in period of the year te inspections ol the forests and forest works of the Cplou 1 to report on them -he Colonial Secretary or Resi- dent.
Councillors after cc t with the Land -nue Officers. He would be available for advice to the unent in regard matter connected with the forests or their forest policy. HILL, Lo. Singapore, ijth September, It must be admitted that a Frrest Guard. Penghulus do this in Malacca.
In the North East District the third Guard is very necessary and 1 would suggest his being placed at Batu Feringhi where an extension of the reserve to include a large quantity of Gutta Percha trees is about to be proposed. Pulau Jerejak seems to require no special staff. Province Wellesley. In mv opinion it will suffice for the present if a new Forest Guard is provided for the Bukit Mertajam District, and each of the 3 Forest Guards is given a coolie to help him in clearing the boundaries and to go about with him.
The maintenance grant m the North Senior District Office should be further increased so as to allow of the road through the Tasek Glugor reserve, and part of the boundary of the Ara Kuda reserve being fire traced : but this may wait till I have sent in my report and explained what 1 consider should be done.
Lumut, j Jothune, iqoo. Appendix B. Minute on the Staff required for the protection of the Forest in the Bindings. Following the arrangements in Penang that each Forest Guard should be assisted by a coolie, the number of Guards in the Dindings is sufficient. The system of having a Land Officer Forest Ranker responsible for the extraction of timber and produce from Crown Lands and a Forest Inspector to merely supervise the protection of the reserves, does not commend itself to me.
This question shall be dealt with more fully in my rep'ort, but in the meantime, if approved, the employment of six coolies might per- haps be sanctioned. Sill Esqr. Conservator of Forests 'fkotrMharv. Banting a. J, Gordon. October Hilt Esqri Conservator of Forests. Gordon, I. Hill, Esq. October BhjQ. Reference Letter on Map Name of Reserve p. Stenting Baloh S. Tontong Akir Kerok Not surveyed, may be more nearly estimated at Glam Kg.
Copea Qrtuiiopper.. J TCmb Pt. Bill Stqr. Pengaring ' Store Sy monel's T. Ktedang 'or. MQ NAIft. Nit- D. Drawn and typed under the supervision of Captain P. C Hill, Esq. Tukang T. Hlmau P. Sajahai 'Kg. Fangkalan Paku Tg. Jeluiong Tanjong Bate Koyok 1 P. Sunjvnpkong Bata Fateh. Batu Kapala TuaA yianjong Changi! Pendaa »w. Tembukal or Pen i Id. Btihjrii Krchil Mag. Pawai or Alligator Td. Senang or Barn Id Y Pulav. XL , For. JPovember pjoo. Drawn, and typed under the supervision ot Csptaiu.
Reoort on the Forest Reserves of the Straits Setttements during the year The Reserves call for practically no report further than that as may bo gather- ed from the table below; they were periodically visited both by the Collector of Land Revenue and the Forest Rangers.
Number of No. Name of Reserve. Ranger, a. Big jungle tailing off on the East 1 j Ruklt Timah 0 00 3 16 into scrub. Rest, except in one place, poor jungle. Good jungle on one or two hills. Good jungle and scrub getting worse towards Chan Chu Kang. J 9 Sempang 5 0 oc 1 1 1 Nice jungle on road side, swamp growths at back. To keep the paths clean enough to be a real protection against fire more men are required possibly everywhere, certainly in Northern Division. On the recommendation of Mr.
IdiLL, land in Pulo Coin lias been no longer open to alienation and that perhaps entitles it to inclusion in the Reserves. A Forest Ranger and granite-checker was appointed. Permission was given to the Railway Department to take red earth from the Bukit Mandi and XI 1 1 th mile Reserves, but no wood of any value has been destroyed and no great difference made to them.
For a very short time a Sub-Forester trained in India was employed here, but, though paid a considerably higher salary than other Government emplyes of like standing, he was so little pleased with the pay and prospects of service under the Straits Government that without futile delay he resigned his appointment and went back India- wards. There has been no destruction of getah trees this year, nor have any new ones been discovered.
Next year the Railway at least will want wood and another attempt should be made to get out working plans. It is to be hoped that Mr. Burn-Murdoch, the new Forest Officer, will then be able to advise as to this and generally as to the Singapore Reseives, 8. There was no revenue derived from them during the year. North-Eastern District. Total area. SCOTT for the rest of the year.
Several visits were paid by them to the Reserves during the year. The Forest Ranger paid altogether 83 visits. The staff employed was 3 Forest Guards and 3 coolies with several extra coolies during the latter part of the year. There were ten prosecutions instituted during the year.
There have been no encroachments on the Reserves, 4. By the end of the year 35 acres had been cleared and 22 acres planted — with the following results : — Planted. The undergrowth from around these trees has been cleared away and they have been marked with white zinc.
A register of them is kept. The following is a statement of expenditure for the year : — - Wages of overseer and coolies Tools and Miscellaneous Expenses Passage of Forester Mr. South-West District. The names and areas of the Forest Reserves in this district are as follows A. Pantai Acheh B.
Laksamana C. The Reserves were visited during the year as follows. Forest Reserve B was visited by mp on the 15th of March, the 3rd May, the 1st September and the 3rd November, and on thirteen occasions by the Forest Ranger. The paths in all the Reserves were kept in good order. Two Chinese were also prose- cuted for picking chestnuts in this Reserve. There were no other prosecutions in connection with the Forest Reserves.
There have been no fires during the year in any of the Reserves. No reports have been received of wood-stealing from the Reserves nor have 1 seen any traces of it on my rounds. It is to be hoped that the increase in the staff which took effect during the year has rendered the commission of this offence more precarious. Three coo- lies are employed in this work who are paid by the Collector of Land Revenue. They were sent to Mr. Northern District. They are as follows : — Tasek Glugor There were altogether 13 fires in the Tasek Glugor Reserve during the year.
There were also 2 fires in the Ara Kuda Reserve, which spread overall area of about 50 acres. The fires in both reserves originated in the lalang, but spread also to the big jungle and consumed parts of that, as well as the lalang and scrub jungle. They occurred mostly during the dry weather in February, March and April, when there was an exceptionally long drought. A public road passes through the Tasek Glugor Reserve and another road skirts the Ara Kuda Reserve, so that in all probablity some of the fires were caused by persons throwing lighted matches into the lalang as they passed b y- , 4.
In one of my visits to the Ara Kuda Reserve, I discovered a trifling encroach- ment of a few feet, made by some Chinese squatters, planting tapioca for Malakoff Estate. Curtis, and lie very kindly sent it to England to be reported on. There were no prosecutions for trespass or for cutting timber in the Reserves. Central District. P- 1 12 O 04 2 01 5 A 5 O 10 94 O 3 i 3 04 2 10 13 2 20 3 2 03 1, 1 03 The visits paid to the Reserves are shown in the following table : — By District Officer.
By Forest Ranger 1. Bukit Langkap. I 8 7 - Bukit Goa Gempass I 4 8. A Forest Guard was appointed for the first time and has proved useful in preventing encroachments. Owing to his appointment and the energy of the Forest Ranger more trespassers on the Reserves were summoned and fined. Two coolies were employed for two months at 30 cents a day to clear the boundaries of the Juru Reserve, which had become much overgrown.
Now that there is a special vote for the Maintenance of Forest Reserves, the clearing of the boundaries can be carried on systematically. The boundaries of Bukit Langkap in particular require opening up, but there was some difficulty in obtaining Malay coolies owing to their dread of tigers.
There were 15 prosecutions for trespass on the Reserves, viz, : — Bukit Goa Ipoh There were no fires of any importance. The Kubang lllu Experimental Gardens are still in the experimental stage. No use has been made of them. Southern District. There is only one area in the Southern District containing 1, acres and 2 poles, which has been set apart for the purpose of forming a Forest Reserve.
It is visited daily by the Forest Guard unless engaged in other duties and he keeps a diary of his inspections. There were four prosecutions for timber cutting in the Forest Reserve and the offenders were all convicted before a Magistrate. The culprits were all Chinese work- ing on the lands surrounding the Forest Reserve and the offences only amounted to pettv thefts of the smaller kinds of trees. The Forest Guard lives, however, too far from the Forest Reserve to be able really to keep an efficient check on such thetts arid it would be of a great advantage if a house could he erected for him near the Reservoir which would ensure his always being on the spot.
There is a large stock of valuable timber on the island of Pulo Kra which is not included in any Forest Reserve. All this timber grows on Crown land and should be maintained as far as possible. Passes were formerly granted to the inhabitants of the island to cut some of the less valuable trees for the purposes of their houses, but during the middle of the year it was found that it was impossible to keep a check on the timber cut under cover of the pass ; thus a pass was granted permitting the cut- ting of the poorer timber but advantage was taken to fell the more valuable woods.
As there are no Government servants on the island except the police it was very difficult to hinder this practice. All passes were therefore stopped : this led to an open system of theft of the timber. Timber was openly felled and brought into the village with the connivance of the police. In October a prosecution was accordingly instituted against three men for theft of Government timber from the island and they were all fined ; the conduct of the police was also brought to the notice of the police authorities and as a result all the police on the island were changed, and an entirely new batch quartered there.
The chief use of the Bukit Panchor Forest Reserve appears to be that it covers the catchment area of the Bukit Panchor Reservoir which supplies the village of Nibong Tebal with water. It therefore affords an easy method of ensuring the purity of the water.
The Reserve though it contains much valuable timber is too small to ever really afford much profit from the cultivation and sale of the woods growing therein. During the year a path was cleared round the whole of the Reserve and on the 18th August I walked right round the Reserve accompanied by the Forest Guard ; such of the Boundary pillars erected on the Boundary line between Kedah and this district as fall in the Reserve were found to be in good repair.
There are still some kampong lands planted chiefly with durians and betel- nuts situated in the Reserve. During the earlv part of the year the owners of these lands, who are all Malays, were given by Government in cash half the estimated value of these lands in return for the surrender of their title deeds, and it was proposed to grant to them in lieu of their former titles in devisable and inalienable leases.
It has now been decided to buy these lands outright and to offer to the owner as compensa- tion the remaining half value of the land and proceedings are now being taken with this view. The Malays, however, having been offered such favourable terms by the first arrangement, now strongly object to be wholly dispossessed of these lands and the latter will therefore have to be compulsorily acquired under the Ordinance.
The Reserve of the Findings remain the same in number 8 were visited by the District Officer and Forest Inspector as or A. Tanjong Burong Area 3, acres Visited by F. Ranger and I aspect or. Telok Sera 5. Pangkor Island 3, acres 18 0 F. Lumut 1. Ulu Bruas 2, acres 4 2 H. Telok Muroh 3, acres 11 4 2. The areas given are guesses and should not be taken as at all accurate, the Reserves, with the exception of Lumut, Pangkor and Ulu Bruas, have not yet been surveyed.
In the case of Lumut and Pangkor Reserves the areas given are probably correct within a few acres. Ulu Bruas Reserve has been surveyed but the work has not yet been plotted and the area is not known. Five prosecutions for trespass or illicit timber cutting in the Reserves occurred during the year, seven persons being involved.
In the Tanjong Burong Reserves, how- ever, much bakau is stolen. The reserve is separated from Perak Territory at Sungei Panchor only by the narrow river, and the Chinese fishing village of Sungei Hud on the Perak side supplies itself with firewood and bakau poles from the Re- serve almost with impunity.
It is extremely difficult for the thieves to be caught in the act as the place can only be approached by water, and the Forest Guards are moreover afraid of the Chinese fishermen from the village rescuing any prisoners they may make. This occurred on one occasion in and one of the men con- cerned in that case was again caught stealing bakau in April, Everything is in favour of the law breakers and there is no likelihood that timber stealing at this place will be stopped so long as the fishing village remains where it is.
The rest of this Reserve extending down the coast as far as the Bruas River is free from the depredations. The theft of big timber in any of the Reserves is almost impossible and it is not worth the risk to steal young timber or jungle produce that can be as easily and more safely found outside the Reserve. The Staff of Forest Guards was maintained at a strength of 13 durum the year, viz. This number of guards may be considered adequate for the work to be done at present.
In it has been decided to add two more blocks of forest land to the reserves, viz. This will necessitate an increase of the staff for this year. Many changes have taken place in the personnel of the Forest Guard staff. Some of the stations Beting Luas and Sungei Batu for instance are very isolated 9 and unpopular, and it has been at times difficult to induce the Guard to remain when sent to these places, , 6, An additional Forest Ranger lor the Reserves to be stationed at Bruas at S6 5 per month was sanctioned for and Mr.
The appointment has proved a very useful one and the present holder Wan Chi has done his work very satisfactorily, though his igno- rance of English makes written communication with him at times not as clear as it mi"ht be. The latter appointment was left vacant till the end of the year in order to see whether one man could not advantageously perform the duties of Forest Ranger and Forest Inspector, as at Bruas.
The duties overlap to a great extent, but it was found that the extent of the district and the distances between the Reserves and other places to be visited, combined with the fact that much of the travelling has to be clone by boat and is therefore slow and uncertain, rendered the amalgamation of the two appointments undesirable.
The vacancy of Forest Inspector was tilled up late in December by the appointment of S. Passes for nibong were not allowed in the Reserves as the cutting and removing entails a considerable amount of damage to the young forest growth. This is not so much the case with rotan or mengkuang, where hardly any damage is done. The origin in each case was not discovered. In the former case about 25 acres of brushwood forming the fringe of the Reserve were damaged, but no trees of any value were in- cluded in the area burnt.
In the fire at Tanjong Hantu the Reserve was just touched and no appreciable damage was done. This was due to a strong wind fortunately blowing the flames away from the Reserves and to a heavy downpour of rain which quenched the fire after it had been burning for about half a day. There are no houses in the vicinity of the spots where the fire seemed to have started ; they must have been caused by the careless throwing of a match by a passer by.
The much needed survey of the Forest Reserves has been begun this year. A surveyor has been stationed here for the last six months of the year. He was occupied for some time in surveying a private estate at Bruas, but since the comple- tion of that work has been engaged exclusively on the Reserves. Ulu Bruas and Lumut Reserves have been completely surveyed with the theodolite and Pangkor with the prismatic compass.
The work has taken longer than I anticipated. The very rough and hilly nature of the country makes chaining and measurement very slow work. It may be possible after survey to alter the boundaries so as to avoid the steeper hills and so as to have less. If so, it would be advisable to do so. At present the task of patrolling and inspecting the boundaries is a very arduous one.
The proposed creation of new Reserves of all the bakau land in the Din- dings has been deferred till the country has been surveyed, A proper working plan of these Reserves with a view to their being economically exploited could not possib- ly precede a survey, and the proposal was premature.
It would have killed the fire- wood trade and would have caused considerable loss of revenue if the bakau forests had been closed to timber cutters as completely as the other Reserves of ordinary forest land. Report on the Forest Reserves in the Central District. The staff consists of a senior and a junior Forest Guard, both of whom are nte lligent and energetic men.
There was no prosecution during the year. Beyond the suspected cutting of bamboos on the edge of the Reserve, I saw no appearance of illicit cutting of wood in our inspections of the boundary. Botanic Gardens, Singapore, received 18, 1 60 plants of the same species for which we paid freight charges only.
The rest were bedded in the nursery and will be put out during the current year. Expend itu re : — Only in the case of Contingent Expenses were the annual votes exceeded and that by a matter of 34 cents only. The second fire occurred on the 17th of December and travelled over about 40 acres of lalang ground but did not reach any of the planted areas. Neither of these fires were serious in their nature and beyond warning the people to blame for them no action was taken.
Jasin District. District Office, Jasin , 21st January , igo2. Sir —l h ave the honour to forward my report on the Forest Reserves of the Jasin District for the year The above were visited on the following occasions by the District Officer and Forest Rangers. Merlimau, Do. Batang Malaka Do. In the case of Bukit Senggeh on my visit in De- cember I found the lines somewhat overgrown in places. With regard to the Merlimau Reserve so large a part of the boundary passes through swamp that it is hardly possible to keep the lines clear, unless coolies are specially employed to do so.
This is not, however, of very great importance as the swamp itself prevents all risk of encroachment. Acting District Officer. District Office, Alor Gajah, 16th 'January, Sir, — I have the honour to forward the following report on the Forest Reserves of this District of the year Number and Area. Sungei Udang by Forest Ranger, 16th and 17th May. Brisu and Sungei Siput by Forest Ranger, 2 1st, 22nd March, 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th April, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 9th, 10th and nth May, 4th, 5th June, 12th and 13th December.
The Staff at each reserve in is shewn below: — Bukit Panchor. Sungei Udang. J New lines have been opened all round the Brisu-Sungei Siput Reserve and they are now in good order. The station at Sungei Udang is now uninhabitable and parf ot it has fallen down. I trust the Public Works Department will attend to this early this year as owing to lack of funds it was unable to do so in No trace of illicit timber cutting was discovered in any of the reserves during the year.
A small area containing taban trees was discovered in Kemuning and was reserved. Gaguardi, a passed Dehra Dun student. The Chief Forest Officer visited each Settlement and many of the reserves and gave advice on some matters ; his duties in the Federated Malay States were however too heavy for him to spare as much time as he could have wished to the Colony and his illness in November and December prevented his completing the 3 months in the Colony which is stipulated.
Extension and Constitution of Reserved Forests. Alteration in Area. In Province Welleslev, the Ara Kuda reserve, acres, was disafforested or thrown open to cultivation ; also 1, acres ot the I asek Glugor reserve was abandoned, Having an area of acres to be maintained as a reserve. This was done on the advice of the Chief Forest Officer after he had visited both areas and considered the matter from every point of view.
No other alterations were effected in the area of Forest Reserves, This table shews the proportion of area reserved to area of the Colon v at the close of Area of Settlement Square Mile. Area of Reserved forests Square Mile. Area of u n reserved forests.
Proportion of reserve to whole area. See Form 3. The two small additions to the Penang Reserves were demarcated, and boundat tes kept clear, The cost is not shewn in tins form as it was incurred in the shape of payment to a regular staff of Forest Guards who also had other duties.
In Malacca the boundaries were also kept clear by the staff of Forest Guards. The inform- ation sent in is very incomplete. In the Dindings the Forest Reserves were completely surveyed, but the results of the survey are not yet ready and the snaps not yet marie. Management of State Forests Working Plans. None have yet been made. The necessity has hardly vet arisen except in the case of Mangrove Reserves and in these in Singapore and the I findings the work should be put in hand as soon as officers have been found to fill the posts provided for.
These however cannot be made until we have good large-scale maps. Communications and. See Form 6. In Malacca, Forest Guards' quarters were erected at Selarvdar at a cost of In the Fede- rated Malay States we are building small houses for the Forest Guards a t from to , and this should be clone in the Colony when more revenue is received. In Penang there were 13 cases of illicit extraction of timber or other forest pro- duce with r 1 convictions.
In Province Wellesley there were 16 cases with 16 convictions. No damage was done by fire. In the Findings there were 43 prosecutions; the number of convic- tions is not stated but In Malacca there were S cases with 6 convictions, one case being compounded ioi , The cases are few except in the Dindings where there are hinese timber cutters In Singapore 6 persons were charged and all convicted.
Practically speaking there are no forest rules, the only law relating to the Forests at all is found in Ordinance No. X of The passing of a Forest Enactment and rules thereunder is now engaging the attention of the Chief Forest Officer. Improvement of Forest Growth. Most of the Forests of the Colony are at present recuperating, having been reserved when in a very poor state. In Penang there is large forest on the hills, but the majority of the reserves in the Island were constituted chiefly with a view to the prevention of erosion of the soil on the steep hill sides, and to the preservation of a regular supply of water, rather than to a successful timber supply.
In the Province the small area reserved consists chiefly of hill tops, except Tasek Glugor where there will soon be exploitable timber. In the Dindings and Malacca we find the best forest. In the former the reserved areas are all hilly except Tanjong Burong which consists of liakau Mangrove.
Nothing has been done to improve natural growth so far, except to allow the reserves a complete season of rest. In Malacca the natural reproduction of Tembusu and Tampinis is reported as very good. Getah Taban Palaquium is scarce, the only natural trees seen by me being near Nyalas.
Cultural Operations. In Penang naturally grown seedlings of Getah Tafiaii were assisted by clearing of undergrowth interfering with their growth, in Block C. Artificial reproduction. See Form 8. In planting of Getah Taban was commenced and carried on till seedlings were planted from seed obtained from a tree in the Waterfall Gardens and were successful.
The following table gives the result of these in Description of trees planted in Septem- ber -October Reported ; alive in Mav Dead in Palaquium Getah seedlings from trees growing in Waterfall Valley, Penang Palaquium Sp. Kickxia elastica seeds from W. As soon as these were inches high they were potted off singly in live inch pots and grown on until the end of April when planting was recommenced by supplying the vacancies caused by losses in and further extending the plantation so long as plants were available.
Description of trees planted April- May Palaquium Getah seedlings from trees growing in Waterfall Valley, ripened J 1, Para Rubber Hevea brasiliensis planted in more open places to shade Palaquium Africa in planted as an experiment Fifty of these are seedlings from trees growing in the V alley close by, and fifty are plants raised from cuttings by Mr.
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